The Brexit transition period is scheduled to end on 31 December 2020. The UK and EU are still negotiating over new arrangements for when the transition ends. Without a new agreement in place, UK-EU trade will revert to World Trade Organization rules and current arrangements in several areas will cease. The UK and EU are preparing for this ‘no deal’ scenario.

But some things will change at the end of the transition period, whether or not a new UK-EU deal is in place.

The briefings on this page cover different policy areas and wider cross-cutting issues, such as the economic impact, social security cooperation, fisheries and Northern Ireland. They explore what will happen at the end of the transition period, in either a deal or no-deal scenario.

Key changes and preparations

The key changes after the transition period and how the UK and EU are preparing for them.

UK-EU co-operation

  • Social security co-ordination

    The implications of the end of the transition period for social security co-ordination between the UK and the EU, including reciprocal healthcare arrangements.

  • Trade

    The implications for UK-EU trade in both a deal and a no deal scenario.

  • Security cooperation

    What will change in relation to security cooperation with the EU at the end of the Brexit transition period in either a deal or a no-deal scenario?

Cross-cutting issues

  • Economic impact

    The potential short-term and long-term economic impact of both deal and no-deal scenarios.

  • Mobile roaming

    Information about mobile roaming charges for UK customers after the end of the Brexit transition period.

  • Pet Travel

    New rules for pet travel will come into force on 1 January 2021. This briefing paper sets out the new requirements.

Impact on industry

  • Chemicals regulation (REACH)

    The impact of Brexit on the chemicals industry and UK Government plans for a separate UK REACH regime after the end of the transition period.

  • Financial Services

    On 9 November 2020, the Chancellor announced the publication of “a set of equivalence decisions for the EU and European economic area member states.”

  • Fisheries

    The end of the transition means changes for how fisheries will be managed in the UK.

  • Transport

    The impacts on the aviation and road haulage sectors at the end of the transition period.

  • Energy and climate change

    The existing relationship between the UK and EU regarding energy and climate change and the position of both parties in the negotiations.

  • Workers' rights

    The implications of the end of the Brexit transition period for workers' rights in the UK.

Research on Brexit and the EU

Explore the latest impartial research and analysis from the Commons Library on issues related to Brexit and the EU.