It has been predicted that Brexit issues will give rise to many legal actions in UK and other Member States’ courts, and the Court of Justice of the EU. While there have not yet been a great many, several cases have been brought by UK citizens living in other EU Member States, while other cases have been interesting for their implications for the UK’s future relations with the EU. This paper looks at issues that have been the subject of legal action in UK and EU courts. …Read more
This paper explains the legal and political background to the three extensions of the UK’s EU-exit process under Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU). It sets out the UK Parliament’s role in the seeking and agreeing to those extension decisions of the European Council.…Read more
The UK Government and the EU have a agreed a third extension of the Article 50 period. How was that decision reached? What was agreed? And what are the implications of the UK’s ongoing EU membership?…Read more
Following Brexit, the UK will no longer be part of the EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). It will become an independent coastal state and be fully responsible for managing fisheries in the UK’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), extending 200 nautical miles (nm) from shore…Read more
The European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Bill 2019 was announced in the Queen’s Speech on 14 October 2019.
What does the Withdrawal Agreement Bill say about what will happen to Northern Ireland post-Brexit? How will it translate into UK law the Protocol on Ireland/Northern Ireland in the Withdrawal Agreement that replaced the ‘backstop’? …Read more
The European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Bill (WAB) has implications for the Scottish Parliament, National Assembly for Wales and the Northern Ireland Assembly. This Insight explains the impacts of the WAB on devolution. …Read more
Individuals will be able to rely on the Withdrawal Agreement directly to assert their rights. …Read more
How does the Bill propose to change UK law to ensure that the transition period is honoured?…Read more
The UK and EU agreed a revised Political Declaration on the framework for the future UK-EU relationship on 17 October. This Briefing provides an outline of the contents of the Declaration and the key changes in the revised text …Read more
Boris Johnson’s Government have negotiated a new ‘deal’ with the European Union. It is formed of a Political Declaration and a Withdrawal Agreement. This paper focuses on the Withdrawal Agreement and how it compares to the one negotiated by Theresa May’s Government in November 2018.
The main differences are in the Protocol on Ireland/Northern Ireland or the ‘backstop’ as it is commonly known. It contains very different arrangements, the UK will no longer be in a single customs territory or union with the EU. The UK will no longer be legally bound to continue with level playing field commitments at the end of the transition period.
Northern Ireland will still be in the UK’s customs territory and VAT area, however, the region will align with the EU’s rules in these areas. Northern Ireland will remain mostly aligned to the EU’s regulations for goods. Four years after the end of the transition period Northern Ireland’s democratic institutions will vote on whether they wish to continue the arrangements in the Protocol.…Read more
The definition of ‘EEA citizen’ in the rules for the Home Office’s settled status scheme has recently changed. What are the consequences? How do these changes affect the people of Northern Ireland? Why are some people unhappy with these changes? What does British nationality law say about people born in Northern Ireland? How do these nationality laws interact with the birthright provision of the Belfast/Good Friday Agreement? What does the European Convention on Human Rights say about identity and immigration? What do the people of Northern Ireland say when they are asked about their nationality? This paper looks at the complex issues behind all these questions.…Read more
After the UK leaves the EU the Government plans to implement a new, unified immigration system, which will apply to all people who come to the UK. According to the Government they intend to implement the future immigration system from 1 January 2021. This briefing sets out the current proposals for the future immigration system, although many of the details remain unknown. …Read more
The No-deal Brexit: A guide to Commons Library research is an annotated bibliography of sources published by the House of Commons Library on a potential no-deal Brexit. It will be updated regularly. Links to the papers included in the resource are available on this page, the downloadable version includes additional comment on some of the selected papers.…Read more
This Commons Library briefing paper considers how getting divorced might be affected by a no-deal Brexit …Read more
Trade in services is hugely important to the UK economy. This Insight looks at what might change if the UK leaves without a deal. It also shows how Office for National Statistics (ONS) experimental statistics helps unravel the complexity of services trade with the EU and other countries…Read more