The cost of living increased sharply across the UK during 2021 and 2022. The annual rate of inflation reached 11.1% in October 2022, a 41-year high, before easing in subsequent months to 10.1% in January 2023. It was 8.7% in April 2023. View all research relating to the current cost of living and inflation, including on energy and fuel prices, support for households, rising prices, rent and housing costs, the effect on students, and suggested further reading.

Inflation and the economy

Energy and fuel prices

  • Energy Bills Support Scheme: Government policy and FAQs

    The Government’s Energy Bills Support Scheme will provide a £400 discount on electricity bills to help households with the rising cost of energy. This briefing summarises the policy, first announced in February and updated in May and July 2022, as well as the reaction to it. It also provides information on eligibility for the scheme and answers to frequently asked questions.

    Energy Bills Support Scheme: Government policy and FAQs
  • Imports of fossil fuels from Russia

    The UK imported no coal, oil or gas from Russia in January 2023. The total value of UK fossil fuel imports from Russia has fallen since Russia launched its full-scale invasion of Ukraine in 2022. It was £1.34 billion in the year to January 20222

    Imports of fossil fuels from Russia
  • Fuel poverty in the UK

    Record energy price rises have led to concern that more families will be drawn into ever deeper fuel poverty. This briefing at how fuel poverty varies across the UK, policies to address fuel poverty, and stakeholder comment on the issue.

    Fuel poverty in the UK
  • Domestic energy prices

    Household energy bills increased by 54% in April 2022. The Energy Price Guarantee limited price increases to 27% in October 2022. Lower wholesale prices will lead to a fall in bills from July 2023.

    Domestic energy prices
  • Petrol and diesel prices

    Prices of petrol and diesel increased rapidly after Russia launched its full-scale invasion of Ukraine. They peaked at new record highs in July 2022. In mid March 2023 the UK had the 11th highest petrol and 3rg highest diesel prices in the EU+UK.

    Petrol and diesel prices

Support for households

Rising prices and affected households

Rent and housing costs


Further reading