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Economic situation

The EU referendum has so far had little effect on overall economic growth. Consumer spending has continued to underpin growth, while business investment has been weak.

% change in real GDP on previous quarter

Forecasts for growth, however, are less optimistic. The steep fall in the pound following the referendum has increased import prices. This is starting to impact on prices along the supply chain. Economists expect the result to be consumer price inflation rising above 2% by mid-2017, and closer to 3% by end-2017.

Annual % change in CPI

Higher inflation would reduce the purchasing power of consumers, potentially leading to slower growth in their spending. This is expected to lead to more modest GDP growth in 2017 despite a potential boost to exports from sterling’s decline. Growth forecasts from private sector economists for 2018-2020 have also been lowered since the Budget in March and the EU referendum. As a result, we can expect the OBR to lower its growth forecasts as well.

Consensus forecast for annual GDP growth

Brexit-related uncertainty and prospects for lower growth led the Bank of England to cut interest rates in August. The Bank has also expanded its quantitative easing programme, whereby it creates new money in order to buy financial assets from financial institutions.

Bank of England base rate

Public finances

In 2015/16 the government had to borrow £76 billion to make up the difference between its spending and income. Despite halving since its 2009/10 peak the UK’s borrowing – often referred to as the deficit – remains large relative to other nations. 

Since the EU referendum, forecasters have increased their forecasts for government borrowing in response to predictions of lower economic growth. The OBR are expected to do the same.

Public sector net borrowing forecasts, % GDP

At over 80% of GDP, public sector net debt – largely the stock of borrowing arising from past deficits – remains relatively high by recent and international standards. The OBR’s March 2016 forecast saw the debt-to-GDP ratio falling each year. Forecasts made, by other forecasters, since the EU referendum have cast some doubt over whether the debt-to-GDP ratio will fall in each of the next five years.

Public sector net debt, % GDP

New fiscal targets

The Chancellor is set to drop, or amend, at least one of the Government’s three targets for the public finances in the Autumn Statement. The target to eliminate borrowing by 2019/20 – in other words, to reach a budget surplus – was abandoned following the EU referendum and is likely to be replaced. The Chancellor may also take the opportunity to change the debt target and welfare cap, both of which have already been breached.

The Chancellor has not said anything definitive on what the new targets might be. However, he has discussed some wider objectives for fiscal policy that the targets may reflect. The Chancellor: still wants to seek a budget surplus in the future; wants to control day-to-day spending and debt; and, may seek to find ‘headroom’ for a fiscal stimulus if the economy needs one. A fiscal stimulus would see the government increase spending or reduce taxes with the aim of stimulating economic growth.


Many economists and industry bodies have been calling for the Government to increase spending on infrastructure. These calls are made against the backdrop of historically low government borrowing costs.

Infrastructure looks a likely candidate for additional spending if the Chancellor thinks the economy needs a fiscal stimulus. The Chancellor has indicated that he sees the need for some targeted and time-limited increases in this area of spending.

Gross fixed capital formation, % of GDP

Other information

The Government is expected to publish the Low Pay Commission’s report on the National Minimum Wage on the same day as the Autumn Statement.

The Library has published an Autumn Statement edition of Economic Indicators.

The Government has said it will publish a National Shipbuilding Strategy by the Autumn Statement. Further information is available in library briefing paper The Royal Navy’s new frigates and the National Shipbuilding Strategy.

The Office for National Statistics will publish Public Sector Finances for October 2016 on 22 November. The Library will summarise the key data in our briefing Public Finances: Key Economic Indicators.

The Library will publish a summary of the Autumn Statement on the evening of 23 November.

Look out for Autumn Statement related blogs on the Library’s blog, Second Reading.

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