This paper describes what steps the Child Maintenance Service (CMS) may take when a Non-Resident Parent (also known as a “Paying Parent”) fails to pay child maintenance on time or in full. It also provides information on the application, collection and enforcement fees charged by the CMS, and briefly summarises analysis on the effectiveness of the CMS’s enforcement and collection system. This paper relates primary to Great Britain: Section 6 describes Northern Ireland’s system.
Documents to download
The future of civil partnership (492 KB , PDF)
Please note that this paper is no longer being updated. More recent information is provided in another Commons Library briefing paper, Civil partnership for opposite sex couples
This briefing paper deals with the position in England and Wales unless otherwise stated.
Civil partnership and marriage across the UK
In England, Wales and Scotland, same sex couples have the option to marry or to register a civil partnership if they wish to gain legal recognition for their relationship. In Northern Ireland, same sex couples may register a civil partnership but may not marry. Across the UK, opposite sex couples may marry but they may not register a civil partnership.
When consulting on the introduction of marriage for same sex couples, the Coalition Government considered that it was unnecessary to extend civil partnership to opposite sex couples, given the availability of both civil and religious marriage.
Statistics on civil partnerships and marriage of same sex couples
Between the introduction of civil partnerships in December 2005 and the end of 2017 there were 72,087 civil partnerships formed in the UK.
The number of civil partnerships formed fell after the introduction of marriage for same sex couples in England and Wales in March 2014, and in Scotland in December 2014. In 2015, 2016 and 2017 the number of civil partnerships in these three countries did not change much, suggesting that the level of civil partnership formation may have stabilised since the introduction of same sex marriages.
Between the introduction of same sex marriage in England and Wales on 29 March 2014 and the end of 2015, there were 9,978 marriages formed between same sex couples in England and Wales. Couples in civil partnerships in England and Wales have been able to convert their civil partnership into a marriage since 10 December 2014. A further 11,557 couples have done so between that date and the end of 2015.
Same sex marriage was introduced in Scotland on 16 December 2014. In the period from January 2015 to December 2017 there were 3,244 marriages formed between same sex couples, of which 1,236 were between couples who were already in a civil partnership.
Previous consultations on the future of civil partnership
In 2014, the Coalition Government consulted on the future of civil partnership in England and Wales. Among other things, the Government asked for views on opening up civil partnership to opposite sex couples. In June 2014, the Coalition Government stated that, in responses to the consultation, there was no united call for reform and that it had decided not to do anything at that time.
Issues in relation to civil status are devolved. The Scottish Government also consulted on the future of civil partnership in Scotland. In November 2017, the Scottish Government published its response to the consultation. It stated that it did not intend to legislate on civil partnership at that time but would continue to consider the evidence on potential take-up of mixed-sex civil partnership in Scotland.
Calls for civil partnership to be opened to opposite sex couples
Calls continue to be made for civil partnership to be made available to opposite sex couples. Supporters of this position argue that opposite sex couples, like same sex couples, should be able to choose whether to marry or to register a civil partnership.
Separately, some calls have been made for civil partnership to be extended to a wider range of couples – for example, siblings who live together. The Government does not support this type of extension.
Government Command Paper
In a Command Paper published in May 2018, the Government set out how it would gather the additional information it considered necessary to bring forward proposals for the future of civil partnership. At that time, the Government anticipated being able to consult on the future operation of civil partnerships in 2020 – this timing has now changed.
Supreme Court decision
In a judgment delivered on 27 June 2018, the Supreme Court decided that the current law on civil partnership is incompatible with the European Convention on Human Rights to the extent that it precludes opposite sex couples from entering into civil partnerships.
Government announcement that civil partnership law will be changed
On 2 October 2018, the Prime Minister announced that the Government would change the law to allow opposite sex couples in England and Wales to enter into a civil partnership.
Civil Partnerships, Marriages and Deaths (Registration Etc.) Bill 2017-19
The Civil Partnerships, Marriages and Deaths (Registration Etc.) Bill (the Bill) is a Private Member’s Bill introduced by Tim Loughton (Conservative), who came fifth in the ballot for Commons Private Members’ Bills for the 2017-19 Parliamentary session. Information about the Bill is provided on the Bill page on the Parliament website.
Clause 2 of the Bill would deal with the extension of civil partnership to opposite sex couples. This clause was amended in Public Bill Committee and at Report stage in the Commons, and again at Committee stage in the Lords.
The Bill, as amended, has Government and Opposition support.
In October 2018, while the Bill was still in the Commons, the Government indicated that it would introduce its own legislation to deal with civil partnership in the next session of Parliament. However, the Government now hopes that the Bill, as amended, would be able “to deliver a comprehensive and effective opposite-sex civil partnerships regime at the earliest opportunity”.
As amended in the Lords, Clause 2 would enable the Secretary of State to make regulations, under the affirmative resolution procedure, to amend the Civil Partnership Act 2004 so that opposite sex couples would be able to form a civil partnership in England and Wales. The Secretary of State would be required to exercise the power so that such regulations are in force no later than 31 December 2019.
Consideration of Lords amendments by the House of Commons (Ping Pong stage) is due to take place on 15 March 2019.
The Bill would also deal with a number of other matters. Another Library briefing paper provides further information:
Consideration of Bill by Committees
The House of Lords Constitution Committee and the House of Lords Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform Committee have expressed concerns about the delegated powers in the Bill.
New consultation by Scottish Government
Following the Supreme Court judgment in June 2018, the Scottish Government consulted on the future of civil partnership in Scotland. The consultation period ran from 28 September 2018 to 21 December 2018.
The consultation set out two options for change and sought views on the arguments for and against these options. The two options were: to make provision laying down that no new civil partnerships could be entered into in Scotland from a date in the future; and the introduction of opposite sex civil partnership. The Scottish Government has said that “Either option would be effective in removing the current discrimination from the law”.
Once the responses to the consultation have been analysed, the Scottish Government intends to take a decision on the way ahead and legislate.
Documents to download
The future of civil partnership (492 KB , PDF)
This Commons Library briefing paper provides general information about how the law applies to cohabitants, the number of cohabiting couples, and about the Law Commission’s proposals for reform.
This Commons Library briefing paper deals with where couples may usually marry in England and Wales, and a Law Commission consultation on its provisional proposals to reform the law governing how and where couples can get married