Use of cash

In recent years, cash has been used less often for payment by people and businesses, while the use of digital payment methods – led by debit cards – has accelerated.

The pandemic saw a drop in cash use. By 2021, cash payments accounted for just 15% of all payments.

Payments by cash and other methods

In 2022, about three quarters of adults (74%) used cash occasionally or rarely. About a fifth (20%) used cash and other payment methods equally. About 6% used cash for most things or for everything.

Some groups of people are particularly likely to use cash for most things, for example the digitally excluded and older adults.

Access to cash from any source

In Apr-Jun 2023, 3.5% of the UK population lived further than 2km from a bank, building society, Post Office branch or ATM where they could access cash.  

Bank branches

Since the mid-1990s, the number of bank branches in the UK has been falling, while the number of building society branches has been more steady.

Between 2012 and 2022, the total number of bank and building society branches in the UK fell by 40%.

Bank and building society numbers

There have been falls in the number of bank and building society branches in all UK countries and regions over this period. The smallest decrease was in Northern Ireland (-13%) and the largest was in the South West (-45%).

Post offices

Post offices provide some consumer financial services and sometimes act as an alternative to bank branches. In March 2022 there were 11,635 post offices in the UK. Post office numbers are discussed in detail in Library Briefing Paper Post office numbers.


ATMs (cash machines) provide essential financial services to individuals by provding access to cash, balance and account information and some other limited functions.

At the beginning of June 2023 there were 49,421 cash machines in the UK, 78% of which were free to use. The total number of ATMs in the UK peaked in 2015 and has fallen each year since then.

Trends in numbers of ATMs by year


The Excel file attached to the landing page for this briefing contains data underlying the charts, and some constituency data for ATMs.

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