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The UK has had hundreds of laws made in response to the coronavirus pandemic.0F[1] Many of these laws could be described as ‘lockdown laws’. In this briefing the term ‘lockdown law’ refers specifically to coronavirus restrictions relating to the restriction of movement, gatherings and high street business operations.

Other coronavirus related laws such as those which impose restrictions on international travel and require the wearing of face coverings are not discussed in this paper, see the box below for further information.

Two further Library briefings provide information about lockdown laws:

Currently no restrictions on domestic movement, gatherings or business opening/service limits are in place in any part of the UK. 

Types of lockdown law

Lockdown laws have imposed many different coronavirus restrictions. Different rules apply in each UK nation. Specific restrictions for certain local areas have also been used.

Lockdown laws can be categorised into three types of restriction: gatherings, movement and business restrictions, within which an array of specific restrictions might be imposed.

Gathering restrictions

An almost total ban on social gatherings has been imposed during full national lockdowns.

Household mixing rules have been imposed to prevent people who do not live together from meeting. Sometimes these rules specify places (usually indoor spaces) where people cannot meet.

Versions of a rule of six have prevented gatherings larger than six people. Some exemptions to these rules allowed larger gatherings for specific purposes.

Various other rules have been in place which allow only for small gatherings. Sometimes the size of the gathering permitted is defined by a specific number of households.

Specific rules have been made to further discourage large gatherings and illegal raves. Those enforcing lockdown laws can issue higher penalties to those who break these rules. During summer 2020, England’s national gatherings restriction was a “large gathering rule”. The penalty for breaking this rule was the same as the “small gatherings rule” it replaced.

Movement restrictions

During full national lockdowns leaving home without a “reasonable excuse” has been prohibited.

Laws have prevented people from travelling outside their local area.

Laws have also prohibited travel between specified areas (often to/from areas with different restrictions in place), this has included a ban on leaving the UK.

Business restrictions

Certain businesses have been required to close during the pandemic.

Hospitality businesses have also been required to operate restricted opening hours.

Some rules have restricted the sale of alcohol.

Other types of coronavirus restrictions

Other laws have been used to impose restrictions designed to slow and contain the spread of the coronavirus. These include laws which:

  • require people to wear face coverings in certain public spaces.
  • require businesses to collect customer data for Test and Trace, to operate by table service only, to ensure social distancing between and to limit the size of parties making bookings.
  • require those who have tested positive for the coronavirus and their close contacts to self-isolate.
  • require those arriving in the UK from specified countries to quarantine.

These are not discussed in this briefing.  An overview of the main pieces of coronavirus legislation has been compiled on

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