What is Article 16 of the Northern Ireland Protocol and how should it work? This paper looks at the reasons why Article 16 might be triggered, what the other party can do to respond if it is, the role of the arbitration panel to settle disputes, whether the TCA can be used to cross-retaliate and can it be terminated, how the EU's infringement process could be used, and in what other areas the EU could withhold cooperation.
A debate will take place in Westminster Hall on 5 July 2018 on the role of universal health coverage in tackling preventable and treatable diseases. The debate will be led by Jim Shannon MP.
Universal Health Coverage means that everyone can receive the healthcare services they need without suffering financial hardship. The World Health Organisation (WHO)sets out the arguments for universal health coverage:
Countries that invest in UHC make a sound investment in their human capital. In recent decades, UHC has emerged as a key strategy to make progress towards other health-related and broader development goals. Access to essential quality care and financial protection not only enhances people’s health and life expectancy, it also protects countries from epidemics, reduces poverty and the risk of hunger, creates jobs, drives economic growth and enhances gender equality.
In December 2017, it was reported that at least half of the world’s population cannot access essential health services and that for almost 100 million people, the expenses associated with healthcare mean that they are forced to live in extreme poverty.
Action towards achieving universal health coverage
At the UN General Assembly in 2015, a new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Milestones were agreed. 193 Member States, including the UK, adopted the goals and committed to working to deliver them by 2030. One of these goals, SDG 3, is focused on ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages. One of the targets under SDG 3 is particularly focused on universal health coverage:
Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all
According to the WHO, actions that can contribute towards achieving universal health coverage include:
- The introduction of finance structures that share the financial burden across the country’s population;
- Investment in primary care services; and
- Improved processes for governance, procurement and supplies of medicines and other healthcare supplies.
More information about action to reach universal health coverage is set out in a 2017 WHO report, Together on the road to universal health coverage: A call to action.
In December 2017, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution calling for access to healthcare for all people and agreeing to hold a high-level meeting on universal health coverage in 2019. The Government have said that the Department for International Development is coordinating preparations across Government for this meeting, and that the Government is encouraging discussion of the issue in international meetings such as the G20 and G7.
A May 2018 Parliamentary Question response provides more information on UK Government action towards achieving universal health coverage:
Achieving Global Goal 3 by 2030, including universal health coverage (UHC), is a priority for the UK. The UK supports countries to move more rapidly towards UHC by building strong and resilient health systems that meet essential needs for all. To achieve this, DFID provides technical assistance and financial support directly to countries, political and financial support to the World Health Organisation, and funding for research and new products that reduce the prices countries pay for essential commodities. Through health partnerships the UK enables others to learn from the UK’s own experience and expertise in providing UHC through the NHS. 
On World Health Day 2018 in April 2018, the WHO launched a campaign #HealthForAll focused on promoting universal health coverage (UHC) by 2030. The campaign website provides further information on the aims and actions of the campaign.
The following links provide further reading on universal health coverage:
- World Health Organization fact sheet Universal health coverage (UHC) 31 December 2017
- World Health Organization Together on the road to universal health coverage: A call to action 2017
- World Bank and World Health Organization Tracking Universal Health Coverage: 2017 Global Monitoring Report
- Health for all campaign
- BMJ, Universal health coverage, health systems strengthening, and the World Bank, 31 August 2017
- The Economist, Universal health care, worldwide, is within reach [Leader], April 2018
- The Economist, Both in rich and poor countries, universal health care brings huge benefits [Special Report], 26 April 2018
- Delegation of the European Union to the UN and other international organisations in Geneva press release Towards achieving Universal Health Coverage, 24 May 2018
- World Health Organization press release Universal health coverage key to safer, fairer world, says WHO chief on eve of World Health Day, 6 April 2018
 UN, Sustainable Development Goals, Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
A debate has been scheduled in Westminster Hall on Monday 29 November at 4.30pm on an e-petition relating to access to salbutamol inhalers. The debate will be opened by Nick Fletcher MP on behalf of the Petitions Committee.
Belarus has been accused of engineering a migrant crisis at its borders with the EU. What is the current situation and what is being done to defuse the crisis?