A briefing paper charting the creation and development of the Northern Ireland border
On 11 November 1918, an armistice between the Allied Powers and Germany was signed, ending the fighting on the western front during the First World War. The armistice was signed at 5am in a French railway carriage in Compiègne, and the guns stopped firing six hours later, at 11am. Under the terms of the armistice, Germany was to relinquish all the territory it had conquered since 1914, as well as Alsace-Lorraine. The Rhineland would be demilitarised, and the German fleet was to be interned in harbours of neutral countries or handed to the British. Announcing the terms in the House of Commons, the British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, expressed relief at the “end[ing of] the cruellest and most terrible war that has ever scourged mankind”.
The centenary of the signing of the armistice will be marked on 11 November 2018 by a series of events. The traditional national service of remembrance at the Cenotaph will take place, as well as the Royal British Legion’s veteran dispersal and march past the Cenotaph. The veterans’ parade will then be followed by a ‘people’s procession’ made up of 10,000 members of the public. During the day, church and other bells will ring out as they did in 1918 to mark the end of the war. The Government is supporting the Central Council of Church Bell Ringers to recruit 1,400 bell ringers (the number of bell ringers that were lost during the war). They will ring on armistice day alongside existing bell ringers across the country. The commemorations will conclude in the evening with a national service of thanksgiving at Westminster Abbey in London. Similar services will also take place in Glasgow, Cardiff and Belfast.
The Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport is leading Government plans to commemorate the First World War Centenary with a range of events and programmes.
In addition to the national events, other commemorative projects are continuing in 2018, such as the Victoria Cross paving stones programme, where commemorative stones are being laid for those who were awarded the Victoria Cross during the First World War.
(Sarah Tudor, House of Lords Library)
The House of Commons Library will not produce a briefing for this debate, however, the House of Lords Library has produced a briefing for the debate due to take place on 5 November 2018 in the House of Lords.
Western military assistance to Ukraine has been longstanding, but was increased significantly after 2014 and the Russian annexation of Crimea. Recent events, which have seen the build-up of Russian military forces in Crimea and on the eastern Ukrainian border, have once again thrown a spotlight on the nature of Western support to the country.
The Overseas Operations (Service Personnel and Veterans) Bill 2019-2021 was introduced in the House of Commons in March 2020. It was introduced in the House Lords unamended in November 2020. The Lords made a number of amendments and now the Bill is in a period of ping pong. The Commons will consider the latest Lords amendments on 27 April 2021. This paper has been updated accordingly.