This House of Commons Library briefing provides an overview of the current rules and recent reforms to relationships and sex education in English schools.
Government policies to improve education standards
Information on relevant Government policies can be found in other Commons Library briefings:
- GCSE, AS and A Level reform
- The school curriculum in England
- School inspections in England: Ofsted
- School funding in England: FAQs
- Constituency data: schools funding
- 16-19 education funding in England since 2010
- The Teaching Excellence Framework for higher education (TEF)
- Initial teacher training in England
- Teacher recruitment and retention in England
- English Baccalaureate
- Widening participation strategy in higher education in England
- The Pupil Premium
- Off-rolling in English schools
Schools: provisional primary and GCSE performance data for 2018
Primary – Key stage 2
At the end of the primary phase of schooling, children in state-funded schools in England undertake National Curriculum Assessments, commonly known as SATs.
The combined reading, writing, and maths measure uses the reading and maths test results along with the outcome of the writing teacher assessment (TA). To reach the expected standard in all of reading, writing and maths, a pupil must achieve a scaled score of 100 or more in reading and maths tests and an outcome of ‘reaching the expected standard’ or ‘working at greater depth’ in writing TA. Together, these subjects give a broad measure of pupil attainment.
In 2018, 64% of pupils reached the expected standard in all of reading, writing and maths, while 10% of pupils reached the higher standard. Attainment in all of reading, writing and maths is not directly comparable to previous years because of changes to writing TA frameworks. In 2017, 61% of pupils reached the expected standard in all of reading, writing and maths compared to 53% in 2016; 9% reached a higher standard in reading, writing and maths compared to 5% in 2016.
Key Stage 4 – GCSEs and equivalents
The DfE published provisional data for 2018 on pupils’ performance in examinations at the end of compulsory schooling – i.e., GCSEs or equivalents – in October. On some headline measures, it is difficult to compare performance across years owing to changes to qualifications and their value in performance tables.
43% of state-school pupils attained a grade 5 or higher in GCSE English and maths or equivalents in 2018, compared to 42.2% in 2017. The 2018 data is subject to later updates.
Ofsted annual report 2016-17
Ofsted publishes an annual report sumarising trends in inspection findings. The conclusions of the latest report, relating to 2016-17 and published in December 2017, included that:
- The quality of early years providers had continued to improve; 94% were judged good or outstanding, compared to 2012 when the proportion was just 74%.
- 90% of primary schools and 79% of secondary schools were judged good or outstanding at the time of publication. Secondary schools, special schools and pupil referral units had “all improved their position to a small degree compared to last year”. (p7)
- In the inspectorate’s opinion, institutions and individuals best placed to tackle school improvement were “spread too thinly”. (p7)
- Concern remained about a very small minority of schools that had not improved enough over very many years. This included some whose “underperformance has lasted for a decade or more” (p7)
- The inspectorate also argued that improvements in test scores did not necessarily indicate an improvement in education standards, observing that “Exams should exist in the service of the curriculum rather than the other way round” (p8).
More children in good and outstanding schools?
On 8 October 2018, Sir David Norgrove, Chair of the UK Statistics Authority, wrote to Education Secretary, Damian Hinds, raising “serious concerns” about the Department for Education’s “presentation and use” of statistics. He had earlier received a letter from Shadow Secretary of State for Education, Angela Rayner, about related matters. Among other things, Sir David criticised:
- Government claims about England’s performance in the PIRLS international assessment of reading skills. He said that the assertion that England had “leapfrogged up the rankings last year, after decades of falling standards, going from 19th out of 50 countries to 8th” was “not correct. […] Figures published last year show the increase was from 10th place in 2011 to 8th place in 2016.”
The Government’s unqualified use of a figure that “appears to show a substantial increase in the number of children in high performing schools, as judged by OFSTED”. This, Sir David said, was “accurate as far as it goes” but did not give a full picture because pupil numbers had been rising at the same time, inspection frameworks had changed, and some high-performing schools hadn’t been inspected for some while.
Education Secretary, Damian Hinds MP responded to Sir David’s letter, saying that the Government wanted “all departmental statistics to be both factually accurate and used in the right context”.
Commentary on trends in education standards
- FTT Education Datalab blog post, ‘A-Level results 2018: The main trends in A-Level and AS-Level entries and grades’, 16 August 2018.
- Education Policy Institute, ‘The disadvantage gap in your area: geographical information pack’, 25 July 2018.
- Education Policy Institute, ‘Does the claim of ‘1.9 million more children in good or outstanding schools’ stack up?‘, 2 July 2018.
- ‘It’s official: the UK’s phonics revolution has dramatically improved school standards’, Minister Nick Gibb in the Telegraph (online), 4 December 2017.
Further and higher education
- WonkHE article, ‘The equality indicators are quietly flashing red’, 23 September 2018.
- Sixth Form Colleges Association, ‘Raise the Rate’ campaign background and data
- University College London press notice, ‘Tuition fees improve quality and equity in higher education, study finds’, 28 November 2017.
- Part 3 (p28 onwards), National Audit Office, ‘The higher education market’, 8 December 2017.
- Education Committee report, ‘Value for money in higher education’, Seventh Report of Session 2017-19, HC 343, 5 November 2018.
- Education Committee report, ‘The apprenticeships ladder of opportunity: quality not quantity’, Sixth Report of Session 2017-19, HC344, 8 OCtober 2018.
- Debate on spending of the Department for Education, HC Deb 3 July 2018, vol 644 cc206-239.
- PQ HL10173, 17 September 2018 (on the gaming of school league tables).
- PQ 158734, 12 July 2018 (on reducing the attainment gap)
- PQ HL8816, 4 July 2018 (on the number of children in ‘good’ or ‘outstanding’ schools).
The Education (Guidance about Costs of School Uniforms) Bill 2019-20 was introduced by Mike Amesbury MP following the Private Members' Bills Ballot on 9 January 2020. The Bill is supported by the Government.
The Troubled Families Programme (TFP) is a programme in England administered by the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government (MHCLG). The programme conducts targeted interventions for families experiencing multiple problems, including crime, anti-social behaviour, truancy, unemployment, mental health problems and domestic abuse. This briefing examines the TFP since 2012, details MHCLG evaluations of the programme, and describes recent commentary and potential future directions for the programme.