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Since 2005, 9 of the 14 by-elections have been won by the incumbent party. There has been a net gain to the Conservatives of two seats, after wins in Norwich North, and Crewe and Nantwich; a net gain of one seat to the Liberal Democrats, following a win in Dunfermline and West Fife; and a net gain of one seat to the SNP after victory in Glasgow East. All of these seats were previously held by Labour. Thus, after accounting for their win in Glasgow North East (previously held by former Speaker Michael Martin), Labour saw a net loss of three seats over this period.


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