Public bills

Public bills (as opposed to private bills) can be introduced both by the Government and by backbench Members (MPs not in the Government). Bills introduced by backbench MPs and peers are known as private members’ bills. 

Government Bills

The number of new bills presented by the Government and bills carried over from the previous session are shown on the left of the table together with the number gaining Royal Assent.

Hybrid bills

The Government figures in this table include hybrid bills. Hybrid bills have the characteristics of both public and private bills and are subject to a combination of both public and private bill procedures to allow those affected to make representations. Two hybrid bills have been introduced since 1997:

Title of bill

Date introduced

Date of Royal Assent


22 Feb 2005 (2004–05)

22 Jul 2008 (2007–08)

High Speed Rail (London – West Midlands)

25 Nov 2013 (2013–14)

23 Feb 2017 (2016–17)

Private Members’ bills

Bills presented by backbenchers under the different types of procedure are detailed on the right of the table together with the totals of each gaining Royal Assent. An overall total of all successful bills is given in the column of the far right. Private Members’ bills (PMBs) cannot be carried over.

The Commons Library briefing on Successful Private Members’ Bills since 1983 lists the titles of successful PMBs and details the different types of procedure under which they can be introduced.

List of bills gaining Royal Assent

The titles of all bills receiving Royal Assent each session are listed in the House of Commons Sessional Returns.

Further information on bills

The Bill Pages on the Parliament website list all bills before Parliament for the current parliamentary session and previous sessions back to 2001–02. Following the link for each bill allowed to your read all the debates in the Commons and Lords for each stage of the bill. You can also access bill documents which includes:

  • The full text of the bill and reprints of the bill incorporating amendments
  • Explanatory Notes published by the relevant government department
  • Speaker’s certification under English votes for English laws (EVEL)
  • Amendment papers
  • Commons and Lords briefing papers
  • Written evidence submitted by outside bodies and individuals


Progress of Legislation

Information on the progress of legislation is available in a single document which lists the titles of all bills before Parliament. This list is updated weekly following Thursday’s business statement and includes provisional dates for forthcoming stages.

Bills and their parliamentary stages

Details of the parliamentary stages of bills and the procedures they are subject to can be found in the following Commons Library briefings:

Parliament: facts and figures

This series of publications contains data on various subjects relating to Parliament and Government. Topics include legislation, MPs, select committees, debates, divisions and Parliamentary procedure.


Please send any comments or corrections to the Parliament & Constitution Centre. Suggestions for new lists welcomed.

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