• Research Briefing

    Pakistan in 2013

    2013 will be another important year for Pakistan. Federal and provincial elections will be held during the first half of the year. If, as seems increasingly likely, the Pakistan People’s Party-led Government sees out its full term in office and hands over to a civilian successor, it will be the first time in Pakistan’s history that this has happened. But the political and economic situation remains highly volatile and unpredictable.

  • Research Briefing

    Police and Crime Commissioner Elections, 2012

    On Thursday 15 November 2012 the first ever elections for Police and Crime Commissioners (PCCs) took place in England and Wales, outside of London. The Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 replaced police authorities with directly elected PCCs. The 41 police areas each elected one PCC. The supplementary vote system was used for the elections. This Research Paper analyses the results

  • Research Briefing

    US Elections 2012

    Statistical summary of the 2012 US Presidential election, including detailed results of Presidential, Senate and Hosue of Representatives elections

  • Research Briefing

    Revised proposals for new constituency boundaries

    The number of parliamentary constituencies in the UK will fall from 650 to 600 as part of the current boundary review. Revised proposals for new constituencies were published by the Boundary Commission for Scotland on 13 September 2012 and by the Boundary Commissions for England and Northern Ireland on 16 October 2012. This note looks at how the revised proposals differ from the initial proposals published last year and the extent to which proposed constituencies can be identified with existing seats.

  • Research Briefing

    Zimbabwe: recent political developments

    This note surveys developments since the beginning of 2011, during which time implementation of the 2008 Global Political Agreement has remained painfully limited. Halting progress is being made towards agreement on a new Constitution, but there remains a real possibility that President Robert Mugabe and his ruling ZANU-PF might abandon the negotiations and opt for early elections under the old Constitution, which greatly favours them. Elections are due by June 2013. Zimbabwe's political prospects remain highly uncertain.

  • Research Briefing

    Arab uprisings: an update

    Two of the three countries that have had elections since the Arab uprisings – Tunisia and Egypt – have seen mainstream and more radical Islamists dominating. In Libya, the third of the three, a pragmatic and relatively secular politician who had been former Prime Minister during the rebellion did well. It is still early to know what these new governments will do.

  • Research Briefing

    Libya’s General Assembly election 2012

    On 7 July 2012, Libya held its first democratic election since 1964. Preliminary results suggest that the former interim Prime Minister Mahmoud Jibril won a landslide victory among seats reserved for party candidates. However, this should not yet be interpreted as a victory for liberals over Islamists. 120 of the 200 seats are reserved for independents and their politics are not yet clear. Mahmoud Jibril has denied that he is a secularist. Nevertheless, it is very different from election results in Egypt and Tunisia, where the parties associated with the Muslim Brotherhood did well.

  • Research Briefing

    London elections 2012

    Elections for the Mayor of London and London Assembly were held on 3 May 2012. The Conservative candidate Boris Johnson was re-elected as Mayor, winning 44% of first preference votes. Labour won 12 of the 25 London Assembly seats to become the largest party in the Assembly.

  • Research Briefing

    Disclosure of tax returns for public officials and holders of public office

    During the campaign for the London mayor in 2012, the two main candidates, Boris Johnson and Ken Livingstone, agreed to release details of their tax returns. The Prime Minister and the Chancellor of the Exchequer have also suggested that the policy could be extended more widely. This Note looks at the arguments for and against so far, and looks at selected international comparisons.