Social scientists are often interested in analysing whether a relationship exists between two variables in a population. For instance, is greater corruption control associated with higher GDP per capita? Does increased per capita health expenditure lead to lower rates of infant mortality? Statistics can give us information about the strength of association, this can sometimes help in deciding if there is a causal relationship, but they are not sufficient to establish this on their own.
Higher Education Bill. (Bill 35 of 2003/04). House of Commons Library Research Paper 04/08.