This information should not be relied upon as legal or professional advice. Read the disclaimer.

“Consumer protection” is a generic term meaning all laws and measures to protect the consumer. It covers many areas, for instance: the sale of goods, digital content and services; unfair contract terms; distance selling; and the safety of goods. This note provides information on the following:

  • Current consumer protection regime
  • When something has gone wrong with a purchase
  • How to resolve a consumer dispute
  • Where to go for help and advice

Current consumer protection regime

The Consumer Rights Act 2015, which came into force on 1 October 2015, represents the biggest overhaul of consumer law for many decades. The Act has introduced new consumer rights and remedies in respect of consumer contracts for goods, digital content and services.

Legislative reforms have been made against a backdrop of structural changes to consumer law enforcement bodies, creating a new consumer landscape. Several different public and private bodies now enforce consumer law, including: 

When something has gone wrong with a purchase

The following scenarios are considered:

  • A good is faulty
  • I havea manufacturer’s warranty or guarantee
  • Digital content is faulty
  • Aservice has not been carried out properly
  • Mixed supply contracts
  • Agood bought on the internet has not arrived
  • If the trader has deliberately misled me?

A good is faulty

Core consumer rights under the Consumer Rights Act 2015 (the CRA 2015) are as follows:

  • Right to get what you pay for– all information about the main characteristics of the goods, including statements made in advertising or on labels, to form part of the contract.
  • Right to have faults in what you buy put right– clearer tiered remedies if a consumer’s rights are breached, including a mandatory 30-day period in which to reject faulty goods.
  • Goods must match a model seen or examined, except to the extent that any differences are brought to the consumer’s attention before he/she enters into the contract.

Where goods do not conform to the terms of the contract and the terms implied by the CRA 2015, the following statutory remedies are available to the consumer:

  • A 30-day short term right to reject faulty goods and obtain a full refund (known as the ‘short term right to reject’). Time is paused in circumstances where the consumer agrees to the faulty good being repaired, with a final right to reject the good if it is still faulty(known as ‘the final right to reject’). 
  • The consumer need only accept one repair or replacement before moving on to the final remedies of price reduction or rejection and refund (i.e. the ‘final right to reject’).

Importantly, the CRA 2015 sets limits and conditions around a trader’s right to make a ‘deduction for use’ if a consumer exercises his final right to reject within 6 months of purchase.

Further detailed information is set-out in a Library briefing paper on the Consumer Rights Act 2015. Citizens Advice has also published guidance on returning a faulty good.

I have a manufacturer’s warranty or guarantee

If a good has an inherent fault, the retailer cannot evade responsibility by simply referring the consumer to a manufacturer’s guarantee. A guarantee does not replace or limit a consumer’s statutory rights against the retailer. Consumers are entitled to rely on the remedies available to them under legislation rather than their rights under a guarantee.

Digital content is faulty

The CRA 2015 gives consumers a clear right to the repair or replacement of faulty digital content (such as downloadable apps, films, computer games, music downloads, e-books and computer software). Specifically, the supply of digital content is regulated when it is supplied:

  • for a price; or
  • free with goods and services which the consumer has paid for and would not be generally available to consumers otherwise.

Digital content must comply with certain standards, including implied terms of satisfactory quality, fitness for purpose, and compliance with description. In addition, there is an implied term that the trader has the right to provide digital content to the consumer.

Where digital content does not conform, the consumer can call upon the following statutory remedies:

  • repair or replacement; or
  • a price reduction

The repair or replacement must be performed within a reasonable time and without causing significant inconvenience to the consumer. A price reduction can be up to the full amount of the price paid for the digital content (ie a full refund).

Unlike with the sale of goods, there is no right to reject non-conforming digital content and obtain a full refund. The one exception is where the trader had no right to supply the digital content (eg pirated content).

A service has not been carried out properly

Under the CRA 2015, all consumer services must be provided with “reasonable care and skill”. There are express provisions that the price paid must be reasonable, and the services must be performed within a reasonable time. It follows from this that services will be “non-conforming” if they are not performed with reasonable care and skill, not performed within a reasonable time, or not performed in line with information given about the service.

Where services do not conform to the contract, the following statutory remedies may be available to consumers:

  • right to require repeat performance; or
  • right to a reduction in price.

The consumer can claim a price reduction in circumstances where:

  • the service is not performed in line with information given about the trader
  • the service has not been performed within a reasonable time
  • it is impossible to re-perform the service
  • or the consumer has requested a repeat performance, but the service has not been re-performed within a reasonable time or without significant inconvenience to the consumer.

Importantly, under the CRA 2015, spoken or written voluntary statements made by the trader, about the trader or the trader’s service, may be treated as binding contractual terms.

Further information is available in the Library briefing paper, Consumer Rights Act 2015. Citizens Advice has also published a useful guidance note on what to do if you’re unhappy about poor service.

Mixed supply contracts

It is possible for a consumer to agree a contract which provides for a mixed supply of goods and services or digital content. In such cases, the consumer must apply the relevant provisions of the CRA 2015 to the relevant parts of the contract.

A good I bought on the internet has not arrived

As a first step, the consumer should contact the seller to find out where it is. It is the seller’s legal responsibility to make sure the item is delivered to the consumer. If the item does not turn up, the consumer is legally entitled to a replacement or refund.

If the consumer thinks that the seller has deliberately broken the law (e.g. by taking their money but not delivering the good), they can report the trader to Trading Standards.

If a trader has deliberately misled me?

Action may be taken if a trader has deliberately misled the consumer (eg if a good is deliberately advertised at the wrong price). The Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 (known as the “Unfair Trading Regulations”) apply to business-to-consumer practices across the UK.

Under the Regulations, there is a duty to trade fairly and honestly with consumers; the Regulations protect consumers from unfair or misleading trading practices and ban misleading omissions and aggressive sales tactics. The Regulations give consumers rights of redress if they have been the victim of misleading actions or aggressive selling. A Library briefing paper provides an overview of the Regulations.

In addition, Part 2 of the CRA 2015 sets out the unfair contract terms regime in respect of consumer contracts. This regime includes:

  • a “fairness test” for enforceability of terms
  • a provision that the main subject matter of the contract or terms that set the price are only exempt from the test of fairness if they are “transparent and prominent”
  • a “grey list” of potentially unfair clauses in consumer contracts, which has been extended
  • the application of the fairness test to consumer notices (and not just contracts)

How to resolve a consumer dispute?

Depending on the circumstances there are various options available to the consumer, including:

  • Court action
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
  • Making a claim against the credit card provider
  • Making a debit card chargeback
  • Seeking compensation from indemnity Insurance

Each option is considered below.

Court action

Defended cases in the civil courts are assigned to one of three tracks, one of which is the small claims track (the others are the multi-track and the fast track). The small claims track is supposed to provide a simple way of resolving civil disputes (including consumer matters). The financial limit for the small claims track is currently £10,000. The rules and procedures are designed to be less formal and more accessible to litigants in person. Only limited costs are recoverable in small claims proceedings.

However, court action should be a last resort, begun only if a dispute cannot be resolved by negotiation. Before beginning any court proceedings, the consumer should seek proper legal advice either from a solicitor or a CAB adviser on the merits (or otherwise) of their case and their chances of success (see below).

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)

For consumer disputes, Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) usually means settling a complaint with the assistance of an impartial dispute resolution body. Usually these methods are a cheaper and quicker route for resolving a dispute. The most common form of ADR is mediation, where an independent third party helps the disputing parties to reach a settlement.

ADR is an option whether the goods or services were bought online or in a shop provided the trader is based in the UK and is willing to engage in ADR. Traders do not have to agree to use ADR for a consumer complaint (unless it is compulsory for them by law, by trade association membership or by contract). Ultimately, if a settlement cannot be reached, even after ADR, there may be no option other than to refer the matter to the court.

Further information is provided in a  Library briefing paper, Consumer Disputes: Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). Information is also available from Citizens Advice and from the Civil Mediation Council website. The County Court also offers free telephone-based mediation through its Small Claims Mediation Service – but only if both parties agree to it.

Possible claim against a credit card provider

In certain circumstances, if the good, digital content or service was bought using a credit card, the consumer may be able to enforce their rights against the credit card company instead of the trader. This is useful in situations where a supplier refuses to help or has gone out of business.

Specifically, section 75 of the Consumer Credit Act 1974 (CCA 1974) makes the credit provider “jointly and severally liable” with the retailer for any breach of contract or misrepresentation by the trader, provided the item cost between £100 and £30,000. This protection applies to purchases made over a counter, online or by phone.

It would be advisable for a consumer to seek proper legal advice from Citizens Advice on whether section 75 of the CCA 1974 would be relevant to their case. 

Debit card – chargeback

If a good was bought using a debit or prepaid card (such as a Visa, MasterCard or American Express card) the buyer of the good may have the benefit of a “chargeback” scheme. Chargeback provisions allows consumers to claim back money spent on goods which do not arrive or are faulty, or where the trader has become insolvent. 

There is usually no minimum or maximum limit to the amount that can be claimed (e.g. chargeback can apply to card transactions under £100) but there are time limits. Usually, a consumer must make a chargeback claim within 120 days of when they bought the goods or service, but this can vary; the consumer will need to check the precise terms of their chargeback agreement.

It is important to note that the provision of chargeback scheme is not a legal requirement; it is part of the card issuer’s terms and conditions. As such, there are no guarantees that a card provider will be able to get a customer’s money back for them.

Indemnity insurance

In respect of the delivery of poor services (such as building works or home improvements), the consumer should check whether or not the trader in question carries professional indemnity insurance (generally known as a ‘contractors’ all risks policy’) from which they might benefit. The constituent should also contact their own household insurer to see what cover they provide. 

If work has been left unsafe, the consumer should report the matter to Trading Standards.

Where to go for help and advice?

In respect of free help and advice, there are various options for the consumer to consider, including:

  • Citizens Advice
  • Trading Standards
  • Statutory regulators
  • Trade bodies and professional associations

The Library’s briefing paper, Legal Help: where to go and how to pay, may be helpful.

Citizens Advice

Consumers can seek free legal advice from their local Citizens Advice office. Consumer guidance and information is also published on the following websites depending where in the UK the consumer lives: 

CAB advisers may assist the consumer in writing formal letters to the trader concerned in order to try to resolve a dispute. However, Citizens Advice will not begin court proceedings on a consumer’s behalf.

Trading Standards

To report a trader to Trading Standards, the consumer would first need to call the Citizens Advice consumer helpline and report the matter to them. An adviser will assess the problem and will pass the case on to Trading Standards if appropriate. (If the consumer lives in Northern Ireland, he/she would first need to contact Consumer line). Alternatively, the consumer could report a trader to Trading Standards using an online form.

Trading Standards cannot begin legal proceedings for compensation on behalf of an individual consumer.

Statutory regulators

Several different types of statutory regulators operate in the UK. Some regulators are required to provide consumers with access to a free or low-cost conflict resolution scheme in the event of a dispute. By way of illustration only, the following organisations are all statutory regulators:

Trade bodies and professional associations

Many different types of trade bodies and professional associations operate in the UK; many reputable tradesmen will belong to a trade body and abide by its membership rules. Importantly, many trade bodies provide consumers with access to a free or low-cost conflict resolution scheme. By way of illustration only, the following organisations are all trade bodies:


The Commons Library does not intend the information in this article to address the specific circumstances of any particular individual. We have published it to support the work of MPs. You should not rely upon it as legal or professional advice, or as a substitute for it. We do not accept any liability whatsoever for any errors, omissions or misstatements contained herein. You should consult a suitably qualified professional if you require specific advice or information. Read our briefing for information about sources of legal advice and help.