The G20 has met at leaders' level since November 2008. The second summit in 2010 takes place in Seoul in November. This note provides background to the G20, outcomes of summits so far, the agenda for Seoul, and the G8/G20 relationship.
UK aid to India was £297 million in 2008/09, and India has received more UK overseas aid than any other country since 1998. As one of the rapidly expanding emerging 'BRIC' economies, this aid programme has come under increasingly intense scrutiny. Recent commentary and Government statements are summarised.
This note provides an update to the second reading and committee stage Library research papers on the Debt Relief (Developing Countries) Bill, also known as the 'Vulture Funds' Bill. The Act entered into force in June 2010 and will lapse if not renewed within a year due to a 'sunset clause'.
The UN's eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are aimed at reducing world poverty and improving lives by 2015. This note provides background and a progress assessment ahead of a UN review summit in September 2010.
This note was last published on 26 August 2009 and will not be updated. In the early stages of the financial crisis there were hopes that it would be largely contained within developed economies, with developing economies having 'decoupled' from them. These early hopes proved unfounded, with developing countries struck by declining trade, a loss of investor confidence and withdrawal of investment, a fall in the value of vital remittances, and much reduced growth and contraction in some cases. There are also fears that aid flows may suffer in the aftermath of the crisis. This note summarises key reports and statistics, with links to further resources.
This is a report on the Committee Stage of the Bill. It complements Research Paper 10/17, prepared for the Commons Second Reading of the Bill. The Bill seeks to limit the amount that can be recovered by any commercial creditor of those countries designated as having unsustainable external debts. It would restrict the activities of so-called 'vulture funds', which buy developing countries' sovereign debt at discounted prices, then seek to recover its value in full through the courts. It would limit successful claims to an internationally agreed level and apply equally to all commercial creditors. At Committee Stage, a new 'sunset clause' was added. The proposed legislation would now expire after one year unless renewed for a further year or made permanent by order.
The Bill seeks to limit the amount that can be recovered by any commercial creditor of those countries designated as having unsustainable external debts. The legislation would restrict the activities of so-called 'vulture funds', which buy developing countries' sovereign debt at discounted prices, then seek to recover its value in full through the courts. It would limit successful claims to an internationally agreed level and apply equally to all commercial creditors. It would cover the 40 countries in the IMF/World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. Debts incurred after the Bill's entry into force would be excluded.
This paper provides an introduction to the Islamic Republic of Iran; its politics, economy, foreign and defence policies, and nuclear programme. It examines the governmental structure of the theocratic state, analyses the key personalities and forums of decision-making and assesses Iran’s policies at home and abroad.
The Bill fulfils the Government’s commitment made in September 2008 to enshrine the 2020 child poverty target in legislation. It establishes four separate child poverty targets to be met by 2020/21, requires the UK Government to publish a regular UK child poverty strategy, requires the Scottish and Northern Irish Ministers to publish child poverty strategies, establishes a Child Poverty Commission to provide advice, requires the UK Government to publish annual progress reports, and places new duties on local authorities and other “delivery partners”’ in England to work together to tackle child poverty.
Income inequality has generally increased over the past two decades, stablising on one measure, but increasing further on another.
This note updates Library Research Paper (RP04/70), Incomes, Wealth & Inequality. It includes the 2007/08 UK data and European/OECD comparisons.
The Government set targets to reduce child poverty by a quarter between 1998/99 and 2004/05, as a step towards halving it by 2010/11 and a goal of 'eradicating' it by 2020.
A Bill to enhsrine the 2020 target has been published. A Library research paper on the bil is aviailable at http://www.parliament.uk/commons/lib/research/rp2009/RP09-062.pdf
The 2004/05 target was missed (see SN/EP/4759 for details). A new composite measure of three indicators was then adopted, one of which constitutes the national target of halving child poverty by 2010/11.
This paper provides a brief historical and social survey of Sri Lanka, including the origins of the conflict between the Sri Lankan Government and the LTTE. It then gives an account of developments since 2002, when a ceasefire was agreed and hopes were raised – rapidly to be dashed – that there might be a peaceful negotiated resolution of the conflict. The paper also surveys the stance taken by the international community on the conflict, the military capabilities of the Sri Lankan military, and aid and development issues. It concludes by considering Sri Lanka’s future prospects, including assessing how real the Government’s military victory is and whether genuine political and constitutional reforms are likely to be introduced.
This note explains why constituency-level poverty data are not available (apart from in Northern Ireland). It gives region/country level data (Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland and the English regions) for poverty among the whole population, children, working-age adults and pensioners (with times series back to 1994/95 in a supplementary spreadsheet).