After transition the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) provisions no longer apply to the UK and formal cooperation in these areas does not form part of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement reached at the end of December 2020. Instead, the UK Government envisages a flexible, ad hoc approach that will make use of channels of broader dialogue with the EU. How this will work in practice remains to be seen.

There are 14 British Overseas Territories across the globe with a total population of 260,000. The Territories differ greatly in their level of economic and social development and their population size. Since March 2020 the UK Government has been working with the Overseas Territories to ensure they receive the help they need to manage outbreaks of Covid-19.