Since 1979 annual pay increases for police officers have been determined under a formula linked to an annual survey of settlement levels for non-manual employees in the private sector. In 2006 this led to a recommendation of a 3% pay increase that Home Office officials and management representatives did not agree to. This led to a dispute over police pay that lasted until October 2008, when a multi-year pay settlement was reached by the Police Negotiating Board for police officers in England & Wales. The three-year deal was backdated to 1 September 2008 and will run through to 31 August 2011.