After transition the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) provisions no longer apply to the UK and formal cooperation in these areas does not form part of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement reached at the end of December 2020. Instead, the UK Government envisages a flexible, ad hoc approach that will make use of channels of broader dialogue with the EU. How this will work in practice remains to be seen.