Landfill tax was introduced on 1 October 1996: this country's first tax with an explicit environmental purpose. This note discusses the background to the tax's introduction. Two other notes look at recent developments concerning the tax, and at the landfill tax community fund - a tax credit scheme to reduce the environmental impact of landfill sites.
The Bill would set up a new Marine Management Organisation (MMO); streamline marine licensing; introduce marine planning; reform fisheries management; provide for Marine Conservation Zones; and enable the creation of a route around the English coast.
Report of the Commons Committee Stage of the Green Energy (Definition and Promotion) Bill. This is a Private Member's Bill, introduced by Peter Ainsworth, which seeks to define and promote "green energy".
The Bill covers a broad range of marine issues and would: (1) set up a new Marine Management Organisation (MMO) under which many of the existing, diverse areas of marine regulation would be centralised; (2) streamline the existing marine licensing system and provide powers to create a joined up marine planning policy; (3) introduce new measures to reform fisheries management; (4) provide a framework for establishing marine conservation zones; and, (5) enable the creation of a route around the English coast.
The Bill seeks to define and promote “green energy”. It aims to facilitate the development of green energy by: requiring a review and revision of the Government’s Microgeneration Strategy including feed-in tariffs; changing permitted development rights in planning law; and ensuring that green energy installations do not result in higher council tax or rates bills.
A year on from Dmitry Medvedev’s succession to the Kremlin, this paper analyses the evolution of Russian foreign policy under both Putin and Medvedev. It seeks to identify the main themes, interests, and objectives of Russian foreign policy, and to appraise the role of President Medvedev in the direction of Russian diplomacy and his relationship with Prime Minister Putin. In so doing, it examines, in detail, Russia’s relationship with the United States, NATO, the EU, and the UK and analyses the role of energy in relations between Russia and the West. Finally, it looks ahead at the prospects for the relationship in light of President Obama’s declared intention to press the “reset” button in US-Russian relations.
This Bill would bring in three measures: an energy efficiency programme to bring existing homes up to current energy efficiency levels; social tariffs to limit vulnerable households' exposure to high energy bills; and reinforcement of the legal duty on the Government to act to end fuel poverty.
This note summarises the latest statistics on measles incidence and rates of immunisation. It also discusses the effect of media coverage on public confidence in the MMR triple vaccine, and compares the UK's immunisation rates with the rest of the OECD.